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What is symblepharon?

Symblepharon is an adherence between the conjunctiva and the lid on its inner side. It is a rare disease.

Symblepharon 1

What are its causes?

There are several causes:

  • Congenital: malformations
  • Traumatic: burns, after pterygium surgery
  • Complications of diseases: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigus
Symblepharon 2

What are the symptoms?

Flushing, problems with insufficient lubrication tear film, which can lead to keratitis, corneal ulcer, etc.

In some cases it can cause limitations in ocular mobility, by adhesions to the extraocular muscles.

Symblepharon 3

How is it treated?

The only treatment is surgery.

With local anesthesia we eliminate adherences or Z-plasty is carved to decrease conjunctival traction lines.

Sometimes we have to add a conjunctival or amniotic membrane lip grafts.

Those caused by burns or systemic diseases may recur over time.


Conjunctival scars are part of the repair process that starts after any trauma, be it a cut, burn, surgery etc.

Small injuries do not require conjunctival surgical repair and usually close on their own.

The conjunctiva has great elasticity. Its protective and nourishing function to the eye is very important.